Wednesday, November 27, 2019

buy custom Important Health Issues that Affect Women Sexual Life essay

buy custom Important Health Issues that Affect Women Sexual Life essay Significance of the Problem Many women are being exposed to various health risks during conception, pregnancy, and post-delivery period because of the lack of appropriate information. Low birth weight of babies, nutrient deficiencies, malnourishment and other issues are common when mothers conceive without due preparation. Such cases arise due to insufficient information that can help prepare for conception and pregnancy through dietary and clinical measures. There are several factors women need to know before conceiving that would help ensure a safe pregnancy and effective post-natal care. This paper discusses several aspects that can improve womens health to foster healthy sexual life as well as pre- and post-natal care. The significance of this issue is that many women are delivering unhealthy babies and getting chronic diseases from the pregnancies. Nursing professionals need to empower women to help reduce such incidences and improve maternal and neonatal health. Pre-conception care aims at reducing the chances of adverse health effects in women, their fetus, and newborns (neonates) through the enhancing a womans knowledge and optimizing health before conceiving. Since reproductive capacity of most women extends to four decades, it is advisable that women are informed to plan and space their pregnancies to enhance a good health that can be accessed by adequate participation in healthcare. Most of the pregnancies have good fetal and maternal outcomes with a few resulting in adverse health effects. Some ducation programs that can be initiated to preconceiving women should focus on consumption of iron and folic acid supplementation one month before conceiving and consuming the supplements during pregnancy (Limbo, 2004). This has been said to lower the risks of experiencing defects related to the neural tube like anencephaly and spina bifida on babies. Other programs may include the control of glucose in the body, especially those with diabetes p rior to as well as in the course of pregnancy. This reduces the chances of maternal morbidity, fetal malformation, intrauterine fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal morbidity. It is, therefore, important for women to be educated as it helps reduce the incidences of the mentioned conditions (Connor, Cheng, Strobino, 2014). How the Problem has been Addressed in Literature Statistics indicates that 30-50% of pregnancies are unplanned while in Zealand, an average of 51 girls out of 1000 at the age of 15-19 conceive every year (Michele and Paula, 2012). Many of the US women (50-60%) did not plan for their pregnancies although they were exposed to several risk factors. These figures give an indication that the majority of women are not ready to have children hence preconceiving care and knowledge should be conducted to all women. Johnson et al. (2006) indicate that 85% of all women in the US have gone through child birth at the age of 44 years while at 25 years old, nearly 50% of all women have had childbirth. This statistics indicates that women need to be educated of the risk factors before they conceive. Considering that fertility in the US is 66 live births among 1000 women, this presents a high value for conducting education before conception. Risk factors like alcoholism, smoking, and the use of certain drugs among others increase incidences of child defects and associated risks to both a mother and a baby (Dolan, Biermann, Damus, 2007). Education to women on how to plan for their pregnancy and babies is essential in preventing such occurrences. 55 % of women in the US are at risk of getting pregnant. They do not use contraception or are inconsistent in its usage, and thus can contract pregnancies and some STIs including HIV. Training and informing women on their sexual health is really important to improve their health (Michele and Paula, 2012). Successes and Challenges in Addressing the Issue This issue has been addressed by the government and health-related organizations contributing to women education before conception, during pregnancies, and after delivery. This has been made to educate them on the importance of a good health care of their fetus and neonates while reducing the chances of having poor health. The lack of information and laxity of the population has been cited as a challenge but with increased awareness programmes, most populations have been covered (Johnson, Owens, Verbiest, 2013). It is, therefore, advisable for the governments, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders to engage in educating women before they conceive. Buy custom Important Health Issues that Affect Women Sexual Life essay

Saturday, November 23, 2019

CPi South Africa Essays

CPi South Africa Essays CPi South Africa Essay CPi South Africa Essay The mission of the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) is the achievement and maintenance of price stability1. The price stability of goods is maintaining a constant price level for goods and services, not essentially at the same price level but rather at a constant level of price increases, i.e. a constant level of price inflation. The SARB attempts to control this price inflation through inflation targeting. Inflation targeting is the attempt to keep the level of inflation within a certain band. In South Africa this band is between 3% -6%. The SARB attempts to use the repo rate to try and affect consumer spending and control the level of spending within the economy and hence control the price inflation of goods.  CPI for all urban areas  The level of inflation is based upon the Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) level which is released by Statistics South Africa. The CPI is based on the price changes over a one year period for a basket of goods and services. This index is based on a number of factors2 which are then weighted based on the estimated total expenditure of all South African households. Stats SA performs an Income and Expenditure Survey (IES) survey to estimated the expenditure of South Africans and hence the weightings of each expenditure3. Prior to 2009 the CPI index was split between a headline CPI and a CPIX (excluding mortgage payments) however a number of changes to the weightings and basket of goods used in 2009 has brought these two in line and now the target for inflation targeting is the CPI for all urban areas.  Alternative Indices  There are a number of alternative CPIs that look at readjusting their weightings of the basket of goods and services to more accurately capture the CPI for specific sectors4 or people5. There are also indices that look at excluding factors of inflation in their calculations6, this can be done for a few reasons, it can help us differentiate between inflation that can be affected by SARB actions and inflation that cannot (i.e. external inflation caused by the price of oil increasing which the SARB has no control over). It can allow us to remove individual areas of inflation to also get a better picture of inflation less these areas. There are also indices based upon income group., this is known as the CPI per expenditure quintile, with quintile 1 being the lowest income and 5 being the highest. According to the IES survey for 2005/2006 the lower income households spent more of their income on food and non alcoholic beverages as well as clothing and footwear.  There are also differences in weightings and inflation make ups depending on the geographical location, there are indices that look at each of the nine provinces; indices that look at rural and urban and secondary urban areas. As expressed by Stats SA in there explanation of how they calculate the weightings for the CPI for all urban areas, not all South Africans consume the same goods or services, nor do they consume them in the same proportion. And later the inflation rate is based on the estimated total expenditure of all South African households It is important to understand that the figure released by Stats SA and ultimately used by SARB to target inflation, most probably will not match your own actual inflation rate. This is of particular importance for a number of reasons, such as workers looking for wage increase usually use the CPI rate announced in there wage increase negotiation discussions; investors looking for a fair rate of return will generally use the announced CPI in assessing their return. Ultimately it is important to assess whether or not the announced CPI is a good figure to use when asses future real returns on an individual level. My Own inflation Rate  If I am to look at a published index to best represent my inflation I would obviously start with the CPI for the City of Cape Town, secondly I would look at an index excluding mortgage payments which would be CPI excluding Housing. And lastly I would look at an index that would roughly cover my income range  Appendix  The CPI rate used by the reserve bank is obviously going to not match my expenditure on goods and services, so I have used the latest CPI realise from Stats SA to try and more accurately see my own CPI and then see if my interest are aligned by the SARBs current inflation targeting policy or if as an individual I would prefer them to act in other ways. There are hundreds of different aspects to each of the main inflation sectors, so it is important to note that this is just done as a quick assessment and is not particularly accurate. I have looked at the additional tables file for December 2009, which goes on to split the CPI per index by each province. So using the CPI for the Western Cape (which totals 6.6%) I attempted to more accurately weight each specified product and service according to my own expenditure. I have created a rough monthly expenditures table, divided up between each different expenditure category. I then looked at my weightings of each of these categories and multiplied it by the Actual CPI amount given. My rough CPI figure is 8.48%, although this is only a rough figure it is interesting to see where my exposure to CPI (insurance and my household maintenance and repair).  1 South African Reserve Bank, reservebank.co.za/ [accessed Feb 2010]  2 Food and non-alcoholic Beverages, Alcoholic beverages and tobacco, Clothing and footwear, Housing and utilities, Household contents and services, Health, Transport, Communication, Recreation and culture, Education, Restaurants and hotels, Miscellaneous goods, and services. 3 Consumer Price Index Key Changes in 2009, Stats SA, statssa.gov.za/cpi/documents/CPI%20booklet%20-%20final%2016%20Oct%2008.pdf [accessed Feb 2010]  4 CPI for Durable , semi durable or non durable goods; CPI for services and CPI for food and non-alcoholic beverages (NAB)  5 CPI for Pensioners  6 CPI excluding petrol, CPI excluding energy, CPI excluding food and NAB, CPI excluding housing; CPI excluding food, NAB, petrol and energy, CPI excluding equivalent rent; CPI excluding administered prices; CPI excluding petrol and paraffin

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Management Portfolio Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words - 2

Role of Portfolio in Civil Engineering Management - Research Paper Example Some of the critical determinants essential for full-fledged functionality of Civil Engineering the cross-functional processes adding value to the civil engineering system through effective concept and value designs. Some of the important areas of focus to enumerate the aspects of civil engineering are Each of the categories plays a pivotal role to understand the aspects of civil engineering and the relationship between civil engineering and the respective categories and functions. Finally, there is a need to devise a document control process to ensure the accuracy of the information and also research on the relevance of the same in various aspects. The entire portfolio is supported with effective case studies, schematic diagrams and data tables for better understanding and application. It is important to understand the regulatory requirements in civil engineering for better functionality of the stream. These regulatory requirements are Health and Safety, Environmental and other specific regulatory like Buildings, Railways, and Highways. In order to correlate the Health, Safety and Environmental aspect of management with the civil engineering management, there are many postulated theories explaining the need for the same. The risk involved in any health and safety is the accidents. An accident is an unplanned, uncontrolled event that resulted in personal injury, property damage and/or some other loss, or could have resulted in personal injury, property damage and/or some other loss in slightly different circumstances Methodology – A questionnaire survey was conducted on construction projects to establish the extent to which clients are involved in construction H&S.